|Chemical composition||Complex Ca Mg/Fe (calcium magnesium/iron) silicate|
|Specific gravity||2.90 - 3.20|
|Lustre||Greasy to vitreous|
Nephrite has been recognized as a separate type of jade since 1863. It is formed from aggregates of fibrous amphibole crystals. The structure they form is interlocking and tougher than steel. It's colors range from dark green iron rich varieties to cream colored magnesium rich varieties. It can be found blotchy, banded or singly colored. It is vary popular for carving and was used for weapons of the past.
Common enhancements to nephrite:
- Fracture filling - wax - conceal cracks and fractures
- Coatings - wax - to improve luster
Nephrite is found in Turkestan, Myanmar, Siberia (dark green rocks with black spots), Russia, China, New Zealand, Australia (black stones), USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Taiwan, Zimbabwe (dark green), Italy, Poland, Germany and Switzerland. It has been carved by the Chinese for at least 2,000 years.
- Smithsonian Handbooks, Gemstones, Second Edition 2002
G&G Articles on Jade 1934-1980
- March-April 1934, Jadeite thought found in America (Oregon), p. 54, 1p.
- [http://www.gia.edu/research-resources/gems-gemology/back-issue-archive/May-June-1934.pdf">May-June 1934, Jade, p. 80, 3pp.</a>
- May-June 1934, Red Jade, by M. Ehrmann, p. 84, 1p.
- Fall 1944, Nephrite found in Lander, Wyo., in 1936, p. 170, 1p.
- Fall 1948, Jade Carving in China, p. 82, 5pp.
- Spring 1950, Jadeite and nephrite found in Calif., p. 289, 1p.
- Summer 1951, Jadeite and nephrite found in Calif., and artifacts, p. 76, 3pp.
- Spring 1952, Jade in Mexico, p. 147, 5pp.
- Summer 1954, The Nature of Jade, p. 38, 9pp.
- Fall 1956, Jadeite from San Benito County, Calif., p. 331, 4pp.
- Fall 1960, Jade Cutting Today, p. 81, 9pp.
- Winter 1964, "Pigeon eye" nephrite from Wyoming (shows chatoyant spots), p. 251, 2pp.
- Summer 1966, Taiwan jade (nephrite), p. 62, 1p.
- Spring 1976, Jade, China's Contribution to Fine Art, by A. Alexander, p. 145, 8pp.
- Fall 1979, Clarification of Composition of Maw Sit Sit, p. 217, 2p.
- Summer 1980, Australia Likely To Be Major Supplier of Jade, by J. Stone, p. 331, 1p.